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Internet Reviews

Sara Amato, editor

Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Access: http://www.sil.org/ ethnologue. Also available via gopher (gopher://gopher.sil.org/11/gopher_ root_fileserv/ftp/ethnologl3/), ftp (ftp:// ftp.sil.org/ethnologl3/), and e-mail (send the command “send [ftp.ethnologl3] 00index.txt” to mailserv@sil.org). Ethnologue is a catalog of more than 6,700 languages spoken in 228 countries. The Web version is drawn from three print publications: the 13th edition of Ethnologue: Languages of the World, the Ethnologue Language Name Index, and the Ethnologue Language Family Index, edited by Barbara F. Grimes and pub- lished in 1997.

The Ethnologue database is produced by the Summer Institute of Linguistics, an orga- nization that conducts research on both writ- ten and unwritten languages and whose goal is to promote cross-cultural communication and develop usable literature in the form of dictionaries, grammars, and Bible translations.

Ethnologue is simple to navigate. The opening page includes a table of contents that lists languages by area and country, by language name, and by language family. Ethnologue offers a search engine that includes Boolean operators, truncation, and limiting by a region.

At the record level, the database is organized by country. An introductory paragraph provides background information listing the population, ethnic groups, and the literacy rate. Ethnologue cites the literature, grades the quality of information provided, and mentions whether a survey is needed to improve the entry.

The rest of the record consists of a list of languages spoken in that country. A typical language entry includes the names of the language or dialect spoken, a three-letter Language Identification Code (important for retrieving a complete list of languages in one family), number of speakers, and the names of other countries where that language or dia- lect is spoken. Each record classifies the lan- guage by linguistic family; by whether it is a national, trade, endangered, or recently ex- tinct language; by its status as a main, sec- ond, or bilingual language; and by word or- der typology (a way of classifying a language by how it orders subjects, verbs, and objects). The national language is not necessarily listed first under a country name, but is inserted within an alphabetical list. Use your browser’s “find in page” command to search for “na- tional.” Many records also list whether there is a dictionary or a grammar and all tell whether the Bible has been translated.

Ethnologue uses abbreviated language records for countries where the language is considered secondary. You are best off using the primary record—listed under the country of origin or where the majority of speakers live—for the most complete information about a language. For example, if you want to know how many Italian speakers live in Argentina, you have to go to the primary record listed under Italy—you won’t find “Italian” listed under “Argentina,” even though it is spoken by 1.5 million people there.

Other sections include lan- guages of special interest (Gypsy, Jewish, Creole and Pidgin, and Deaf Sign Languages), geographic distribution of living languages by broad region, and the top 100 languages by number of speakers. The Web site also in- cludes a list of abbreviations and an exten- sive bibliography. Ethnologue provides simple political maps of the world. In September 1998, they added their first linguistic map showing where languages are spoken within Argentina and Chile. They plan to add addi- tional country maps in the near future.

Until Ethnologue finishes loading its linguistic maps, you will need to rely on the print version or on the much more comprehensive Atlas of the World’s Languages (Chris Mosely and R. E. Asher, Routledge, 1993).

Sara Amato is electronic resources and Web development librarian at Bowdoin College; samato@bowdoin.edu

Ethnologue is unique on the Web—there is nothing else available that is anywhere near as comprehensive. To find similar information, you must turn to print encyclopedias like the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1992) in which Ethnologue based its linguistic families, or the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (R. E. Asher, Pergamon, 1994), or handbooks such as the World’s Major Languages (Bernard Comrie, Oxford University Press, 1987), and Compendium of the World’s Languages (George L. Campbell, Routledge, 1991).

While many of these resources go into greater depth, none provides as extensive a list as Ethnologue.

Overall, the editors have done a good job translating the print version to hypertext, although the introduction could use some revision to reflect the changes. As stated in the introduction, Ethnologue should be useful to “linguists, translators, anthropologists, missionaries, bilingual educators, government officials, field administrators, potential field investigators, and interested lay people.”—Mark Emmons, University of New Mexico, emmorıs@ unm.edu

The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism. Access: telnet://har2. huji.ac.il.

The Posen Bibliographic Project is an on- going work of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA) at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Posen Project currently consists of three databases: an annotated (descriptive) bibliogra- phy of antisemitism (covering publications from 1984 to the present); a retrospec- tive bibliography of antisemitism (covering materials prior to 1984, without annotations); and “The ‘Jewish Question’ in German-Speak- ing Countries, 1848-1914” (a bibliography that will eventually be expanded to also cover 1914-1933). Portions of the bibliographies have appeared in print as Antisemitism: An Annotated Bibliography, edited by Susan Sarah Cohen (1987- ), and “The Jewish Question” in German-Speaking Countries, 1849- 1914: A Bibliography, edited by Rena R. Auerbach (1994). Searches can be performed by author, title, subject, journal title, or keyword. Coverage includes monographs, journal articles, collections of essays, and reports in all the major Western languages, as well as Hebrew, and full bibliographic information is provided. Search results can be manipulated, such as filtering by the date the material was added to the database or by language.

Users can telnet directly to har2.huji.ac.il (username is SICSA, no password required) to connect to the Posen databases or connect through the SICSA Web site at http:// sicsa.huji.ac.il/bibsear.html—your Web browser must have telnet software installed, however. They are also accessible through the Israeli University Libraries Network (username ALEPH at the above telnet site). All of the ALEPH databases are very similar to search.

From the Posen Project bibliography (or rom any of the ALEPH sites), the user can type “lb” followed by the three-letter abbreviation to connect to any of the other available networked sites. For example, while connected to Posen, if you were to type “lb rbi” (without the quotes) followed by ‹enter›, you would connect to the “Index of Articles in Jewish Studies” (known as RAMBI, and covering materials since 1985); “lb cjd” ‹enter› would connect you to the Contemporary Jewry Database of the Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University; “lb bas” ‹enter› connects you once again to SICSA’s annotated bibliography of antisemitism; “lb ret” ‹enter› connects you to the retrospective bibliography, etc. The command “base” ‹enter› displays other ALEPH sites that one can connect to. Type “start” ‹enter› while in any of the databases to display its opening screen; type “stop” ‹enter› to disconnect from any of the databases and leave the Hebrew University.

These databases are very easy to use, and should be of interest to faculty and students (especially graduate) in Jewish Studies, Sociology, and History. The Posen Project can provide a wealth of citations relating to antisemitism in its broadest sense, including the Holocaust and Holocaust denial.—John A. Drobnicki, York College Library/CUNY, drobnicki@ycvax.york. cuny.edu.

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